NAP (Note, Alternative, Practise)The following is a guide to teaching functional appropriate behaviour when a behaviour which challenges occurs. A full functional behaviour assessment is always recommended. However the following can be a a helpful process when a behaviour occurs in the moment and you need to work out how to respond in that moment.
Note the situations and the persons body language and think: what is this person needing/wanting?
o If the behaviour began while adults were talking together it may to be functioning to access your interaction.
o If it began when you asked him to do something, it may be functioning to avoid doing what was asked
o If it began when you entered a new place and his body language is showing that he is trying to leave (gesturing towards the door, pushing himself towards the exit etc) it may be functioning to avoid or escape
o If it occurred after you said no to something, it may functioning to access the item.
How do I best respond to make this behaviour non-functional and how can I teach him to communicate in a different way?
Prompt the alternative behaviour then reinforce immediately (before the behaviour can begin again).
o If the behaviour was functioning for access to attention: Prompt the student to mand for attention.
o If the behaviour was functioning to escape something you were doing prompt him to mand finish/go etc
o If the student wanted a particular item either prompt the sign or picture selection for that item
If the behaviour was automatically reinforcing try provide something which gives the same or similar stimulation
Throughout the session, ensure repeated practice of the situation which evokes the behaviour. Create the situation then prompt the alternative behaviour immediately before the behaviours which challenge can begin.
Sarah Denison, BCBA